首页 >> 公证认证样稿 >> 财经类英中互译翻译样稿 >>凯恩斯曾经过着充满激情同性恋生活 英文原文
详细内容

凯恩斯曾经过着充满激情同性恋生活 英文原文

 

It was within the Apostles that Keynes met lifelong friends such as Lytton Strachey, who later moved to London and socialized with luminaries like the author Virginia Woolf in the Bloomsbury circle. Falling in and out of love with various young men—artist Duncan Grant was a lover from 1908 to 1911—Keynes lived a life of passion while embracing the then-stolid art of economics.

His inner and outer circles of friends and acquaintances would later include some of the greatest intellects and leaders of the early twentieth century, from George Bernard Shaw to Winston Churchill. Witty but sometimes insufferable, he could entrance people in conversation at one moment, then rudely dismiss them with sarcasm in a heartbeat. Not even those who despised him, though, believed that he was anything less than brilliant when he sported his extensive knowledge of history, art, philosophy, politics, and math. He was truly an Edwardian da Vinci.

A Moral Science

Keynes and his fellow Cambridge Apostles were enraptured by the ethical philosophy of Moore, whose Principia Ethica, published in 1903, became their secular bible. Like every ethicist before him, Moore asked the diffcult questions: What is good? How can we know what is good? What is a good life? Keynes would later weave Moore’s philosophy into his vision of economics in a broader attempt to create a better world, one without war, strife, unemployment, and poverty. Inspired by Moore, Keynes rejected eighteenth-century utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham’s hedonic calculus,” which attempted to quantify various types of pleasure mathematically. Along with his Bloomsbury friends, Keynes abandoned strict religious ideas of right and wrong and pursued beauty, pleasure, and artistic pursuits:  

The appropriate subjects of a passionate contemplation and communion were a beloved person, beauty and truth, and one’s prime objects in life were love, the creation and enjoyment of aesthetic experience and the pursuit of knowledge.

Keynes called his rebellious ethos that of an immoralist; he did not see himself as amoral, since he believed that he was a Utopian, but he was someone “who believes in a continuing moral progress.” It was an antifundamentalist view of the world that “repudiated all versions of original sin.”

 The corset-bound world of Victorian morality essentially ended with Keynes’s group and his outer circle, which included D. H. Lawrence, the author of the ribald Lady Chatterley’s Lover, which Keynes endorsed. Under the infuence of Moore, Russell, and other radical thinkers, Keynes was guided by “rational self-interest,” which also happens to be a bedrock of most classical views on economic behavior. Marshall was his tutor in economics.

As one who thought and loved freely and indulged passionately in the arts, Keynes was able to break the mold of classical economics and the way we view markets and mass behavior. Although he was schooled in the idea that economics was a moral science, he also introduced a sense of fairness and justice into economics. He was genuinely concerned about those who had been thrown out of work during the Depression, and he abhorred the twin evils of infation and defation. His British sense of fair play set him to work on making markets and economies more stable.

In keeping with what a young man of his station was expected to do once he obtained his degree, Keynes took the national civil service exam in 1906 and placed second. That enabled him to work as a clerk in the India Offce, which fed his interest in macroeconomics, the superstructure that supported the fow of money throughout the civilized world. After two years, though, he was restless and yearned for greater challenges. He lectured at Cambridge until the outbreak of World War I. He was 31 at the time and held a post in the Treasury from 1915 until 1919. After the war, his literary and economic career thrust him onto the world stage, and his ideas on macroeconomics became his calling card.

The Jazz-Age Economist

Keynes was a jazz-age genius before anyone had heard of Louis Armstrong. As he probed the fnances of India and the atonal, harsh language of the Versailles Treaty, he discovered in economics a calling that spoke to him. In the wake of the Great War, he was suddenly a player who was strutting and fretting upon the world stage—an improviser who was singing a new melody. And nearly everyone who mattered—except the principals who were negotiating the reparations from Germany—was listening to him. His Economic Consequences of the Peace, which condemned the victors of World War I and showed how and why Germany would ultimately turn to fascism, made him a superstar. The book was a bestseller and made him a must-read on both sides of the Atlantic, cementing his place in the spotlight. Keynes was the insider who gave a raspberry to the elites who were running governments and sowing the economic seeds for another war. But when he spoke, it was to make a difference. The “war to end all wars” was doomed to be repeated. Keynes told us what would go wrong as a result of the Versailles Treaty—and that treaty eventually produced Hitler and the most horrifc confict in human history. Although he annoyed, chided, and berated the Euro-American power class, they couldn’t ignore him, and they asked for his counsel repeatedly from 1919 until 1946, when he died.